サポート ブログ Affinity Maturation

Affinity Maturation

Biointron 2024-01-27 Read time: 3 mins
Maturation.jpg
Image credit: DOI: 10.2289/fmicb.2017.00495

Affinity maturation refers to the process of improving antibody affinity and binding interactions to target antigens. This is done naturally in vivo by somatic hypermutation and clonal selection in mammalian B cells, but it can also be done in the lab in vitro by mutagenesis and selection for therapeutic applications. 

In vivo 

When a host is repeatedly exposed to the same antigen, the antibodies produced by their immune response will have increasingly greater affinity, avidity, and anti-pathogen activity. This occurs due to somatic hypermutation in the variable CDRs (complementarity-determining regions) of immunoglobulin genes in B cells, and takes place in germinal centers (structures within secondary lymphoid tissues). Clonal selection takes place when follicular dendritic cells of the germinal centers present antigens to the B cells, with only the most competitive B cells surviving to stably conjugate with follicular B helper T cells. After several rounds of selection, high-affinity antibodies will be produced.1

In vitro 

Similar to the in vivo process, in vitro affinity maturation is used to optimize antibodies, antibody fragments, or other peptides by diversifying the antibody base sequence and isolating higher-affinity binders.  

  

FCMES-AM™ (Full Coverage Mammalian Expression System for Affinity Maturation) is Biointron's proprietary platform for affinity maturation. Each amino acid in the CDR region will be mutated to the other 17 amino acids (except Cysteine and Methionine) with equal ratios. The clones will be expressed in a mammalian system, and an ELISA binding assay will be conducted as an initial test. This will be followed by SPR (surface plasmon resonance) or FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) for further affinity measurements.The process is as follows:

  1. Site-directed saturated mutation 

  2. High-throughput mammalian cell expression 

  3. ELISA and sequencing to identify hot spots 

  4. Combinatorial mutation design and characterization


At Biointron, we are dedicated to accelerating antibody discovery, optimization, and production. Our advantages in affinity maturation include:

  • No-bias Site Saturation Mutagenesis in CDR Regions 

  • Guaranteed at least 5-fold Affinity Improvement 

Our team of experts can provide customized solutions that meet your specific research needs. Contact us to learn more about our services and how we can help accelerate your research and drug development projects. 


References:

  1. Doria-Rose, N. A., & Joyce, M. G. (2015). Strategies to guide the antibody affinity maturation process. Current Opinion in Virology, 11, 137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2015.04.002

Subscribe to our ブログ

Recent ブログ

The therapeutic efficacy of antibodies is closely related to their ability to recognize and bind specific epitopes on target antigens. Epitopes, or antigenic determinants, are a group of amino acids or other chemical groups that are part of a molecule to which an antibody attaches itself. Epitope characterization can help reveal the mechanism of antibody binding and apply intellectual property (patent) protection for novel antibodies, in addition to designing antibodies with high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity.

Jul 12, 2024
ブログ

Understanding the differences between antibody specificity and selectivity is essential for designing and interpreting antibody-based assays in research for experimental accuracy and data interpretation. Antibody specificity refers to an antibody's ability to recognize and bind to a particular epitope—a unique part of an antigen that elicits an immune response.

Jul 10, 2024
ブログ

Antibody-based assays are essential tools in biomedical research, providing the means to detect, quantify, and visualize specific proteins or antigens within complex biological samples. These assays' efficacy hinges on the antibodies' precise properties. While affinity, avidity, specificity, and selectivity are fundamental to antibody performance, the ultimate impact of these properties is heavily influenced by the experimental context in which the antibody is employed.

Jul 08, 2024
ブログ

Biologics, particularly antibodies, have become indispensable in biomedical research and therapeutic development. Research-use-only (RUO) biologics play a pivotal role in preclinical studies, providing researchers with the necessary tools to explore antibody functions and therapeutic potential in vivo.

Jul 04, 2024
ブログ

お客様の利便性を向上させるためにクッキーを使用しています。詳しくは プライバシーポリシー をご覧ください。